A liturgical book containing antiphons, which are portions of Psalms or sentences from Scripture.
A liturgical book containing antiphons, which are portions of Psalms or sentences from Scripture. Antiphons may be recited or sung as responses during liturgy or at the beginning and end of a Canticle, Psalm, or Psalm verse. In the medieval liturgy the antiphons were sung during Matins and Vespers, and for the Introit, Offertory, and Communion of the Mass. After the Council of Trent, the antiphon was sung before and after the Psalm. Antiphonals can be very large books, so that the entire choir that sang the antiphonals could use the same volume. The lettering is very large and in proportion to the size of the volume. The beginning and the end of the antiphons are rubricated, and the initials may be decorated.
Michelle Brown, Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum in association with the British Library, c1994).
Jeanne E. Krochalis and E. Ann Matter, "Manuscripts of the Liturgy," in The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, ed. Thomas J. Heffernan and E. Ann Matter (Kalamazoo, MI: Published for The Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages, Inc. by Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2001), 433-472.